6.29.2016

Pemupukan Kakao : “Budidaya Kece, Hasil Panen Oke”

Produktivitas kakao nasional sebesar 880 kg/ha/tahun. Jika tanaman dirawat dengan baik, produktivitasnya bisa menembus 1-2 ton/ha/tahun. Bagaimana caranya? Menurut Azwar Abu Bakar, Direktur Tanaman Rempah dan Penyegar, Ditjen Perkebunan, Kementerian Pertanian (Kementan), baik produksi maupun produktivitas kakao nasional periode 2011-2013 mengalami peningkatan yang cukup rendah, sebesar 4,5%/tahun. Azwar mengkhawatirkan stok bahan baku kakao yang semakin minim jika pertanaman kakao tidak dikelola dengan baik. “Empat hingga lima tahun ke depan status Indonesia akan berubah dari ekspor menjadi impor jika tidak ada upaya konkrit. Stok dalam negeri harus dijaga,” papar Azwar saat ditemui AGRINA, Rabu (27/8). 

Mencukupi?
 
Produksi kakao nasional sebesar 712 ribu ton pada 2011, meningkat menjadi 740 ribu ton pada 2012 dan mencapai 777 ribu ton pada 2013. Tahun ini produksi kakao nasional diharapkan menembus 817 ribu ton. Sementara, produktivitas pemilik nama ilmiah Theobroma cacao itu berturut-turut sebesar 808 kg/ha, 845 kg/ha, dan 880 kg/ha pada 2011-2013. 

Tahun ini produktivitas kakao diharapkan mencapai 911 kg/ha. Azwar menuturkan, “Produksi kakao nasional pada 2013 berdasarkan Statistik Ditjen Perkebunan mencapai 777 ribu ton, sedangkan data Asosiasi Industri Kakao Indonesia (AIKI), kapasitas terpakai dari 16 unit pabrik pengolahaan cokelat sebesar 324 ribu ton. Dengan demikian, kebutuhan bahan baku untuk industri pengolahaan kakao dalam negeri masih dapat dicukupi dari produksi kakao dalam negeri.” 
Kebutuhan kakao untuk industri kakao dalam negeri setiap tahun juga meningkat. Pada pada 2011 kebutuhan industri kakao sebesar 268 ribu ton, 2012 sebesar 306 ribu ton, 2013 sebesar 324 ribu ton, dan 2014 sekitar 500 ribu ton. Tahun depan kebutuhan industri diprediksi sebanyak 600 ribu ton. 

Sementara Zulhelfi Sikumbang, Ketua Umum Asosiasi Kakao Indonesia (Askindo), menegaskan, industri kakao kekurangan bahan baku. “Menurut data Askindo saat ini produksi biji kakao di dalam negeri baru mencapai 450 ribu ton/tahun, Padahal kapasitas produksi industrinya mencapai 600 ribu ton sehingga kita kekurangan untuk memenuhi kapasitas industri. Ini menurut saya adalah lampu kuning. Dan ini bisa saja akan berakibat pada meningkatnya impor biji kakao,” ulasnya. Zul menambahkan, produksi kakao mulai menurun sejak delapan tahun terakhir. “Puncak produksi kakao terbesar di Indonesia terjadi pada 2006 dengan produksi kakao mencapai 620 ribu ton. Namun, setelah itu mulai menurun produksinya dan tidak stabil,” bebernya. 
Gernas Kakao
 
Beberapa sebab yang menimbulkan produksi kakao yang sedikit beranjak naik. Menurut Azwar, pengaruh anomali iklim yang tidak bisa diprediksi dan penyebaran penyakit yang sudah mencapai angka memprihatinkan menjadi sebab produksi kakao yang lemah. Belum lagi banyak tanaman kakao sudah tua, sedikitnya klon-klon kakao unggul, hingga pemeliharaan tanaman yang tidak sesuai cara budidaya yang baik (Good Agriculture Practices, GAP). 

Menurut Azwar, peningkatan produksi dan produktivitas kakao salah satunya dilaksanakan melalui Gernas Kakao atau gerakan nasional peningkatan produksi dan mutu kakao. Gernas dilakukan pada 2009-2011 di sentra produksi kakao melalui peremajaan 70 ribu ha lahan pertanaman kakao, rehabilitasi 235 ribu ha, intensifikasi 145 ribu ha, pemberdayaan petani sebanyak 45 ribu orang, pengendalian hama penyakit tanaman seluas 450 ribu ha, dan perbaikan mutu kakao sesuai SNI. 

Dalam perkembangannya, sambung Azwar, Gernas Kakao berlangsung hingga 2013 dengan realisasi mencapai 460.303 ha meliputi peremajaan 82.520 ha, rehabilitasi 218.793, dan intensifikasi 158.990 ha. “Berdasarkan Kajian Dampak Gernas Kakao yang dilakukan beberapa perguruan tinggi, antara lain INSTIPER, UGM, IPB, dan Unhas menunjukkan Gernas Kakao memberikan manfaat bagi pertumbuhan perekonomian. 
Selain itu, tanaman kakao yang diremajakan mulai belajar berbuah, sedangkan yang direhabilitasi menunjukan peningkatan yang signifikan,” ungkapnya. Namun, bila tanaman yang telah direhabilitasi dan diremajakan tidak mendapat perawatan yang intensif, maka target peningkatan produktivitas tidak akan tercapai. 

Salah satu intensifikasi pertanaman kakao dengan melakukan pemupukan. Menurut Sonson Garsoni, pemilik PT Cipta Visi Sinar Kencana, produsen pupuk di Bandung, Jabar, petani kakao masih melakukan pemupukan dengan cara ditabur. Padahal, sambungnya, cara pemupukan tersebut menimbulkan pemborosan sebesar 70% sebab pupuk urea bersifat mudah menguap dan mudah tercuci air. “Jadi, kalau ditabur di permukaan tanah itu tercuci, leaching, dan ketika panas juga menguap,” ulasnya. Sonson menambahkan, idealnya pupuk itu dibuat dalam bentuk tablet, granul, atau bentuk lain yang bisa diaplikasi dengan cara dibenamkan sekitar 15 cm di bawah permukaan tanah. 

 Di samping itu, pupuk untuk kakao harus mengandung kalium lebih tinggi dibandingkan unsur nitrogen dan fosfor. Pupuk juga perlu ditambahkan unsur hara makro, seperti magnesium, sulfur, dan kalsium, dan unsur hara mikro, seperti seng, boron, dan kobalt. “Kalsium itu sangat penting untuk kakao, misalnya memperkat kulit buah dan untuk putik agar mempertahankan biji agar tidak mudah rontok,” terang lulusan Sosial Ekonomi Fakultas Pertanian IPB ini. 
Pupuk majemuk seperti ini misalnya bisa ditambahkan sebanyak 60 kg/ha untuk 1.100 batang kakao pada fase tanaman menghasilkan (TM) 1 dan 80 kg/ha TM 2. Sonson pun menyarankan petani menggunakan pupuk kompos. Pasalnya, lahan pertanian di Indonesia sudah jenuh dengan pupuk kimia yang mematikan jasad renik di sekitar tanaman. “Kita rekomendasikan penggunaan kompos atau kandang sekitar 6 kg/pohon. Karena kejenuhan unsur kimia juga menyebabkan tanah menjadi masam, diperlukan peningkatan pH mendekati 7 dengan penambahan dolomit atau kapur. Itu rekomendasi pemupukan yang baik untuk tanaman kakao,” ia menjelaskan. Sementara itu, ketersediaan air tanah juga akan mencukupi dengan adanya pupuk kompos. Pasalnya, kompos bersifat menahan air dan menjaga kelembapan tanah di sekitar perakaran tanaman. 

Kondisi kesuburan tanah di setiap daerah berbeda-beda, jadi petani pun harus memeriksa kandungan hara dalam tanah agar bisa memberikan pemupukan yang tepat. Pemerintah harus memfasilitasi petani untuk pengecekan kesuburan tanah sehingga pemupukan bisa dilakukan dengan pendekatan spesifik lokasi. “Di Indonesia ini nggak berjalan, bagaimana pemupukan dengan menempatkan rekomendasi spesifik lokal untuk pemupukan, pH, keadaan air, itu tidak ada. Petani dibiarkan dengan persepsinya,” pungkas Sonson.  
Windi Listianingsih, Arfi ZHB, Peni SP, Tri MR, Untung Jaya,  
http://agrina-online.com/redesign2.php?rid=7&aid=5180


53 komentar:

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  33. Terimakasih atas semua komentar dan pendapat anda, sekali lagi bahwa pupuk adalah nutrisi tambahan atas kurangnya jumlah hara tersedia dengan kebutuhan genetis tanaman untuk menghasilkan buah, batang maupun daun yang diperlukan manusia.

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  35. Karena itu memupuk secara benar harus terlebih dahulu diketahui jumlah hara tersedia atau kondisi kesuburan tanah, kemudian di susun komposisi unsur hara dan dipadukan dalam bentuk tablet. Bentuk ini akan padu, kuat dan dengan diberi bahan baku zeolit, pupuk tablet Gramalet ini akan memiliki kemampuan lepas hara secara lambat atau lepas terkendali.

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